RubyGems Navigation menu

value 1.1.3

Value Value is a library for defining immutable value objects in Ruby. A value object is an object whose equality to other objects is determined by its value, not its identity, think dates and amounts of money. A value object should also be immutable, as you don’t want the date “2013-04-22” itself to change but the current date to change from “2013-04-22” to “2013-04-23”. That is, you don’t want entries in a calendar for 2013-04-22 to move to 2013-04-23 simply because the current date changes from 2013-04-22 to 2013-04-23. A value object consists of one or more attributes stored in instance variables. Value sets up an #initialize method for you that let’s you set these attributes, as, value objects being immutable, this’ll be your only chance to do so. Value also adds equality checks ‹#==› and ‹#eql?› (which are themselves equivalent), a ‹#hash› method, a nice ‹#inspect› method, and a protected attribute reader for each attribute. You may of course add any additional methods that your value object will benefit from. That’s basically all there’s too it. Let’s now look at using the Value library. § Usage You create value object class by invoking ‹#Value› inside the class (module) you wish to make into a value object class. Let’s create a class that represent points on a plane: class Point Value :x, :y end A ‹Point› is thus a value object consisting of two sub-values ‹x› and ‹y› (the coordinates). Just from invoking ‹#Value›, a ‹Point› object will have a constructor that takes two arguments to set instance variables ‹@x› and ‹@y›, equality checks ‹#==› and ‹#eql?› (which are the same), a ‹#hash› method, a nice ‹#inspect› method, and two protected attribute readers ‹#x› and ‹#y›. We can thus already creat ‹Point›s: origo =, 0) The default of making the attribute readers protected is often good practice, but for a ‹Point› it probably makes sense to be able to access its coordinates: class Point public(*attributes) end This’ll make all attributes of ‹Point› public. You can of course choose to only make certain attributes public: class Point public :x end Note that this public is standard Ruby functionality. Adding a method to ‹Point› is of course also possible and very much Rubyish: class Point def distance(other) Math.sqrt((other.x - x)**2 + (other.y - y)**2) end end For some value object classes you might want to support optional attributes. This is done by providing a default value for the attribute, like so: class Money Value :amount, [:currency, :USD] end Here, the ‹currency› attribute will default to ‹:USD›. You can create ‹Money› via dollars = but also kronor =, :SEK) All required attributes must come before any optional attributes. Splat attributes are also supported: class List Value :'*elements' end empty = suits =, :hearts, :diamonds, :clubs) Splat attributes are optional. Finally, block attributes are also available: class Block Value :'&block' end block ={ |e| e * 2 } Block attributes are optional. Comparison beyond ‹#==› is possible by specifingy the ‹:comparable› option to ‹#Value›, listing one or more attributes that should be included in the comparison: class Vector Value :a, :b, :comparable => :a end Note that equality (‹#==› and ‹#eql?›) is always defined based on all attributes, regardless of arguments to ‹:comparable›. Here we say that comparisons between ‹Vector›s should be made between the values of the ‹a› attribute only. We can also make comparisons between all attributes of a value object: class Vector Value :a, :b, :comparable => true end To sum things up, let’s use all possible arguments to ‹#Value› at once: class Method Value :file, :line, [:name, 'unnamed'], :'*args', :'&block', :comparable => [:file, :line] end A ‹Method› consists of file and line information, a possible name, some arguments, possibly a block, and is comparable on the file and line on which they appear. Check out the {full API documentation}¹ for a more explicit description, should you need it or should you want to extend it. ¹ See § Financing Currently, most of my time is spent at my day job and in my rather busy private life. Please motivate me to spend time on this piece of software by donating some of your money to this project. Yeah, I realize that requesting money to develop software is a bit, well, capitalistic of me. But please realize that I live in a capitalistic society and I need money to have other people give me the things that I need to continue living under the rules of said society. So, if you feel that this piece of software has helped you out enough to warrant a reward, please PayPal a donation to now@disu.se¹. Thanks! Your support won’t go unnoticed! ¹ Send a donation: § Reporting Bugs Please report any bugs that you encounter to the {issue tracker}¹. ¹ See § Authors Nikolai Weibull wrote the code, the tests, the manual pages, and this README. § Licensing Value is free software: you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the {GNU Lesser General Public License, version 3}¹ or later², as published by the {Free Software Foundation}³. ¹ See ² See ³ See


  1. 1.1.3 - September 04, 2013 (13.5 KB)
  2. 1.1.2 - April 30, 2013 (12.5 KB)
  3. 1.1.1 - May 04, 2012 (6 KB)
  4. 1.1.0 - April 26, 2012 (5.5 KB)
  5. 1.0.1 - April 25, 2012 (7 KB)
Show all versions (8 total)

Runtime Dependencies (1):

Development Dependencies (6):



  • Nikolai Weibull

SHA 256 checksum:


Total downloads 23,300

For this version 4,871

= Copy to clipboard Copied!




Required Ruby Version: None